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Author Topic: mp siin - kui sul ei ole midagi asjalikku öelda, tee seda mujal.  (Read 128850 times)

mp

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Re: mp siin - kui sul ei ole midagi asjalikku öelda, tee seda mujal.
« Reply #615 on: February 19, 2018, 19:22:34 »


*  kui sul ei ole midagi asjalikku öelda, tee seda mujal.  *




Overtraining is frequently discussed, but rarely well-defined. This important review provides a set of definitions, and also explores the potential mechanisms that might underpin the development of overtraining syndrome among athletes.
« Last Edit: February 19, 2018, 19:40:42 by mp »
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mp

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Re: mp siin - kui sul ei ole midagi asjalikku öelda, tee seda mujal.
« Reply #616 on: February 21, 2018, 19:44:24 »


How Much Protein Can the Body use ... uuring on avaldatamas peagi
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mp

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Re: mp siin - kui sul ei ole midagi asjalikku öelda, tee seda mujal.
« Reply #617 on: February 21, 2018, 22:14:15 »


Recent review "Vitamin D and the Athlete: Current Perspectives and New Challenges" by Daniel Owens, Richard Allison and Prof. Graeme Close


* It is crucial that applied practitioners and scientists are aware that whether athletes SHOULD BE SUPPLEMENTED is PURELY BASED on whether they have sufficient or insufficient/DEFICIENT vitamin D concentrations.

* There is no ergogenic effect of providing doses of supplemental vitamin D that would elevate 25[OH]D concentrations far above the cut-off for sufficiency ([75 nmoll-1).

* Adequate vitamin D exposure can optimize the acute adaptive response to damaging physical work but do not lend any support to the idea that vitamin D may be important over an extended period of training.

* A small number of studies demonstrate an increase in proximal muscle strength in adults with 25[OH]D concentrations less than 25 nmoll-1. Sacropenic status of elderly muscle permits more measurable benefits by maintaining optimal vitamin D concentration. Muscle function may only be perturbed by severe vitamin D deficiency which is more prevalent in ageing population.

* However, in elite athletes, vitamin D deficiency does not impact muscle function. Therefore, it is not possible to conclude the role of vitamin D in contractile function and force producing capability of muscle.

The enzyme 1-alpha hydroxylase is responsible for the hydroxylation of the inactive 25[OH]D to its biologically active form, 1,25[OH]D. The fact that monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, and T and B lymphocytes contain not only the VDR but also 1-alpha hydroxylase suggests that vitamin D is functionally important to the immune system.

Activation in immune cells appears to be regulated by circulating concentrations of 25[OH]D and induced by activation of the toll-like receptor cascade in the presence of pathogenic microbiota. vitamin D upregulates gene expression of broad-spectrum anti-microbial peptides (AMPs), which are important regulators in innate immunity. AMPs, including cathelicidin, are important proteins in the innate immune system and help defend against acute illness, including tuberculosis, influenza, and the common cold.

Vitamin D is further suggested to maintain a balance between the inflammatory type 1 and type 17 T-helper (TH1/TH17) cells and the immunosuppressive Th2/regulatory T cells (Tregs) to dampen excessive inflammation and tissue damage. Additional studies suggest that vitamin D enhances natural killer cell cytolytic activity and acts to trigger the oxidative burst in activated macrophages.

A single dose of vitamin D3 (100,000 IU) has been shown to enhance the innate immune response and restrict growth of mycobacteria in vitro. A large amount of studies had reported negative associations between vitamin D concentration and incidences of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). The breakpoint for contracting a single illness appeared to occur at * 95 nmoll -1, such that all athletes with circulating concentrations lower than this breakpoint had one or more episodes of illness.

Recent study showed that 14-week supplementation with vitamin D3 5000 IU per day during winter training significantly increased salivary secretion rates of cathelicidin and secretory immunoglobulin A.


[Bone Health and Fracture Risk]

Vitamin D status is indicative of calcium absorption and bone mineralization. The relationship between vitamin D deficiency and bone health has been described in very detailed in previous review papers.

Bone remodeling is a dynamic physiological process that consists of three main consecutive processes: (1) resorption, when osteoclasts digest old bone; (2) reversal, when mononuclear cells appear on the bone surface; and (3) formation, when osteoblasts lay down new bone until the resorbed bone is completely replaced.

The active form of vitamin D, 1,25[OH]2D3 affects osteoblast function via different mechanisms. It controls remodeling via induction of receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-jB ligand (RANKL), regulates phosphate homeostasis by increasing fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and may enhance the response of mechanical loads via stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling.

Evidence also showed bone cells can produce 1,25[OH]2D3 from the 25[OH]D3 precursor and that this activity is likely to account for the skeletal effects of circulating 25[OH]D3.

The stimulus of loading the musculoskeletal system through high-intensity dynamic sporting activity is proposed to compensate for 25[OH]D deficiency, with the absence of poor bone health in athletes. However, non-weight-bearing athletes are prone to the same detrimental skeletal effects and are at higher risk for low BMD when vitamin D status is low.

Recent research shows no association between serum 25[OH]D concentration and measures of bone health in an ethnically diverse athletic population, irrespective of exercise type (weight/non-weight bearing). Therefore, optimum concentrations of serum 25[OH]D for the best possible skeletal health are still debated.

[Vitamin D-Binding Protein (VDBP), Polymorphisms, and the Black Athlete Paradox]

Studies demonstrate that Black and Hispanic men are at elevated risk of 25[OH]D deficiency but at lower risk of osteoporosis, rapid bone loss, and associated fractures than Caucasians.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Too Much of a Good Thing]

Serum 25[OH]D levels that are too high ([180 nmoll-1) may be toxic. The highest dose (70,000 IU/week) also raised the product of vitamin D catabolism, 24,25[OH]D which is thought to exert a negative effect on 1,25[OH]2D3 signalling and may inhibit the conversion of 25[OH]D to 1,25[OH]2D3 in a negative feedback loop. 24,25[OH]D metabolite remained elevated even though 25[OH]D and 1,25[OH]2D3 fell after withdrawing from the supplements. Persistent elevation of 24,25[OH]D in the face of declining active 1,25[OH]2D3 could result in the opposite effect than what was intended.

Pleiotropic effects of the vitamin D metabolome were observed in a study of vitamin D status and muscle function and gene expression in the elderly, suggesting that future supplementation studies should not be restricted to usual analysis of the major circulating form of vitamin D, 25[OH]D.


[Are We Measuring the Right Thing?]

Serum 25[OH]D concentration is measured as a marker of vitamin D status because of its long half-life and close relationship to vitamin D3 exposure (dermal synthesis or dietary intake). However, several recent studies have shown that some functions of vitamin D may be more closely related to the free or bioavailable fraction of vitamin D than to total serum 25[OH]D concentrations.

It may suggest that bioavailable vitamin D is a better predictor of BMD in an ethnically diverse athletic population than serum 25[OH]D concentration. It is becoming clearer that determining true vitamin D status is multifactorial. If testing is warranted, practitioners should use the appropriate assays to determine bioavailable (free) vitamin D concentration rather than total serum 25[OH]D and VDBP genotype, if possible.


 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40279-017-0841-9


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mp

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Re: mp siin - kui sul ei ole midagi asjalikku öelda, tee seda mujal.
« Reply #618 on: February 22, 2018, 19:43:20 »



https://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Fulltext/2018/03000/Electromyographic_Comparison_of_Barbell_Deadlift,.1.aspx/?

Electromyographic Comparison of Barbell Deadlift, Hex Bar Deadlift, and Hip Thrust Exercises: A Cross-Over Study

.............................................................................


Deadlift vs. Squat Which Trains Ass? Front Squat Elicits Max. Activation of 13 Female Gluteus Maximus Muscles

22% higher activation w/ front squat vs. deadlift - advantage over back squat non-significant, though…

Knowledge of lower body muscle activation among these three exercises can aid coaches, trainers, and therapists for training and rehabilitative purposes. Trained women (n = 13) completed two days of testing including a one repetition maximum (1RM) estimation, an actual 1RM, and 3 repetitions at 75% 1RM load for the deadlift and back and front squats. Muscle activity of the 3 repetitions of each muscle were averaged and normalized as a percentage to the 1RM lifts for the deadlift, front and back squats. Five separate repeated measure Analysis of Variances were performed indicating muscle activity of the gluteus maximus differed among the three exercises (p = .01, ηp2 = .39). Specifically, post hoc analysis indicated greater muscle activity during the front squat (M = 94%, SD = 15%) compared to the deadlift (M = 72%, SD = 16%; p < .05) in the gluteus maximus.

 Paquette, et al. "Muscle Activation Patterns of Lower Body Musculature Among Three Traditional Lower Body Exercises in Trained Women." The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: February 15, 2018 - Volume Publish Ahead of Print. http://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002513
« Last Edit: February 22, 2018, 20:28:40 by mp »
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mp

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Re: mp siin - kui sul ei ole midagi asjalikku öelda, tee seda mujal.
« Reply #619 on: February 25, 2018, 20:37:11 »


Conclusion: Prevalence of psychiatric disorders was NOT  significantly different in performance-enhancing drug users and nonusers. Thus, it can be concluded that performance-enhancing drugs do NOT increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in bodybuilders.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5816910/
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mp

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Re: mp siin - kui sul ei ole midagi asjalikku öelda, tee seda mujal.
« Reply #620 on: February 25, 2018, 22:34:11 »



https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323348254_Effect_of_Resistance_Training_Frequency_on_Gains_in_Muscular_Strength_A_Systematic_Review_and_Meta-Analysis

5 ConclusionsThe results of the present systematic review and meta-analysis suggest a significant effect of RT frequency onmuscular strength gain, with higher RT frequenciesresulting in more strength gains. However, these effectsseem to be primarily driven by training volume becausewhen volume is equated, there was no significant effect ofRT frequency on muscular strength gains. Therefore, froma practical standpoint, greater training frequencies might beused as a means of increasing total training volume, whichmay impact muscular strength accrual. However, it remainsunclear whether RT frequency on its own has a significanteffect on muscular strength gains. In addition, it seems thathigher training frequencies result in greater strength gainsfor multi-joint exercises in the upper body, among youngadults, and in women, findings that should be considered inRT program design. Finally, trained individuals are morelikely to use greater RT frequencies in their routines, andthus future research among this population is needed to draw more generalizable conclusions

Effect of Resistance Training Frequency on Gains in Muscular Strength: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323348254_Effect_of_Resistance_Training_Frequency_on_Gains_in_Muscular_Strength_A_Systematic_Review_and_Meta-Analysis [accessed Feb 25 2018].
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mp

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Re: mp siin - kui sul ei ole midagi asjalikku öelda, tee seda mujal.
« Reply #621 on: February 26, 2018, 17:28:19 »


Selleks, et toimuks lihaste hüpertroofia, ei pea sa mitte "lihast lõhkuma".
 

*One very influential analysis of the mechanisms of muscular hypertrophy proposes that there are three primary mechanisms: mechanical loading, metabolic stress, and muscle damage.



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mp

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Re: mp siin - kui sul ei ole midagi asjalikku öelda, tee seda mujal.
« Reply #622 on: February 27, 2018, 19:17:01 »

Controversy exists about the maximum amount of protein that can be utilized for lean tissue-building purposes in a single meal for those involved in regimented resistance training. It has been proposed that muscle protein synthesis is maximized in young adults with an intake of ~ 20–25 g of a high-quality protein; anything above this amount is believed to be oxidized for energy or transaminated to form urea and other organic acids. However, these findings are specific to the provision of fast-digesting proteins without the addition of other macronutrients.

Consumption of slower-acting protein sources, particularly when consumed in combination with other macronutrients, would delay absorption and thus conceivably enhance the utilization of the constituent amino acids.

The purpose of this paper was twofold: 1) to objectively review the literature in an effort to determine an upper anabolic threshold for per-meal protein intake; 2) draw relevant conclusions based on the current data so as to elucidate guidelines for per-meal daily protein distribution to optimize lean tissue accretion. Both acute and long-term studies on the topic were evaluated and their findings placed into context with respect to per-meal utilization of protein and the associated implications to distribution of protein feedings across the course of a day.

The preponderance of data indicate that while consumption of higher protein doses (> 20 g) results in greater AA oxidation, this is not the fate for all the additional ingested AAs as some are utilized for tissue-building purposes.

Based on the current evidence, we conclude that to maximize anabolism one should consume protein at a target intake of 0.4 g/kg/meal across a minimum of four meals in order to reach a minimum of 1.6 g/kg/day. Using the upper daily intake of 2.2 g/kg/day reported in the literature spread out over the same four meals would necessitate a maximum of 0.55 g/kg/meal.


https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-018-0215-1



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Bodyfat measurements...


"In fact, based on the results of the above study, BIA doesn't seem to do a better job at estimating body fat percentage than skinfold calipers do. Also, the more expensive DEXA scan can also get pretty inaccurate...

So where does this leave us with regards to estimating our body fat percentage?

Honestly, our best advice is to not worry about what your body fat percentage is to begin with. Seriously, like, who cares about a silly number which is most likely wrong anyway?"
« Last Edit: February 27, 2018, 19:54:50 by mp »
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kristo1979

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Re: mp siin - kui sul ei ole midagi asjalikku öelda, tee seda mujal.
« Reply #623 on: February 27, 2018, 22:19:08 »

Põhimõtteliselt ainus variant on inimene lahti lõigata ja kõik eraldi kaaluda :)
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mp

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Re: mp siin - kui sul ei ole midagi asjalikku öelda, tee seda mujal.
« Reply #624 on: February 28, 2018, 23:40:35 »


Ma lihtsalt jätan selle siia .....




https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29474360  PLoS One. 2018 Feb 23

*Animal versus plant protein and adult bone health: A systematic review and meta-analysis*

CONCLUSIONS:
These results do not support soy protein consumption as more advantageous than animal protein, or vice versa

ahjaa: olen kuulnud, et kõik ei mõista rahvusvahelisi keeli - eesti keeles tähendab see:

* Selle uuringu põhjal saab öelda, et sojavalgu tarvitamisel ei ole eeliseid loomsete valkude ees, ja samamoodi ka vastupidi -

ei ole loomsetel sojavalgu ees. *

« Last Edit: March 01, 2018, 07:57:40 by mp »
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mp

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Re: mp siin - kui sul ei ole midagi asjalikku öelda, tee seda mujal.
« Reply #625 on: March 01, 2018, 17:06:24 »


http://www.physiology.org/doi/abs/10.1152/japplphysiol.01100.2017  The effect of dietary arachidonic acid supplementation on acute muscle adaptive responses to resistance exercise in trained men: a randomized controlled trial


"The findings do not support a mechanistic link between ARA and short-term anabolism, but ARA supplementation in conjunction with resistance training may stimulate increases in translational capacity."
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mp

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Re: mp siin - kui sul ei ole midagi asjalikku öelda, tee seda mujal.
« Reply #626 on: March 02, 2018, 09:11:45 »

BRAND NEW NORDIC HAMSTRING CURL STUDY!

STUDY TITLE - Region-dependent hamstrings activity in Nordic hamstring exercise and stiff-leg deadlift defined with high-density EMG

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:

-Nordics preferentially activate semitendinosis over biceps femoris

-Stiff-leg deadlift recruits semitendinosis and biceps femoris more evenly

-Nordics cause more distal biceps femoris activity. Whereas stiff-leg deadlifts have a more even proximal to distal hamstring activity profile.

**************************************

-This goes against the ‘deadlifts for proximal hamstring’ mantra.

-More accurate summary is that Nordics target medial hamstrings more and deadlifts activate medial/lateral and proximal/distal hamstrings more evenly



Study link here:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/29143379/

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


https://www.strongfirst.com/understanding-why-less-is-more-with-anti-glycolytic-training/
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troll123

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Re: mp siin - kui sul ei ole midagi asjalikku öelda, tee seda mujal.
« Reply #627 on: March 02, 2018, 11:29:03 »

Ma lihtsalt jätan selle siia .....




https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29474360  PLoS One. 2018 Feb 23

*Animal versus plant protein and adult bone health: A systematic review and meta-analysis*

CONCLUSIONS:
These results do not support soy protein consumption as more advantageous than animal protein, or vice versa

ahjaa: olen kuulnud, et kõik ei mõista rahvusvahelisi keeli - eesti keeles tähendab see:

* Selle uuringu põhjal saab öelda, et sojavalgu tarvitamisel ei ole eeliseid loomsete valkude ees, ja samamoodi ka vastupidi -

ei ole loomsetel sojavalgu ees. *

Soja  on struktuuriliselt  v2ga sarnane estrogenile ja omab sarnast efekti meie kehale.  K6rge estrogeni tase meestel on ka otsene  p6hus  madalakas testos.    Soja s88mine mis sisaldab estorgeenseid yhendeid   p6hjustab ka madalat   testot meestel.

Lihtne valik
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A.L

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Re: mp siin - kui sul ei ole midagi asjalikku öelda, tee seda mujal.
« Reply #628 on: March 02, 2018, 12:49:39 »

BRAND NEW NORDIC HAMSTRING CURL STUDY!

STUDY TITLE - Region-dependent hamstrings activity in Nordic hamstring exercise and stiff-leg deadlift defined with high-density EMG

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:

-Nordics preferentially activate semitendinosis over biceps femoris

-Stiff-leg deadlift recruits semitendinosis and biceps femoris more evenly

-Nordics cause more distal biceps femoris activity. Whereas stiff-leg deadlifts have a more even proximal to distal hamstring activity profile.

**************************************

-This goes against the ‘deadlifts for proximal hamstring’ mantra.

-More accurate summary is that Nordics target medial hamstrings more and deadlifts activate medial/lateral and proximal/distal hamstrings more evenly



Study link here:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/29143379/

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


https://www.strongfirst.com/understanding-why-less-is-more-with-anti-glycolytic-training/

Ma hakkasin selle postituse peale lausa mõtlema, et minu sooritus ei ole RDL ega ka SLDL. Peaks selle versiooni patendeerima, kuna see on kõige effektiivsem. Tüüpilise RDL puhul kang maad ei puuduta ( muideks, kõige magusam koht ) ja tüüpilise SLDL puhul põlvest väga ei pendita ( just seda teen aga mina ).

A.
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What will you do if all your problems aren't solved by the time you die?

mp

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Re: mp siin - kui sul ei ole midagi asjalikku öelda, tee seda mujal.
« Reply #629 on: March 02, 2018, 18:02:11 »

Soja  on struktuuriliselt  v2ga sarnane estrogenile ja omab sarnast efekti meie kehale.  K6rge estrogeni tase meestel on ka otsene  p6hus  madalakas testos.    Soja s88mine mis sisaldab estorgeenseid yhendeid   p6hjustab ka madalat   testot meestel.

Lihtne valik

Siin on kaks võimalust: kas inimene kirjutab seda, mida talle "saalis räägiti", ja ei tahagi teada, kuidas vastavas valdkonnas teave liigub ning mida leitud on  või ta loeb "linke" ja saab teada, et

Uuringud on kokkuvõttes näidanud, et (isegi, kui see struktuur on sarnane) ei oma soja sellist efekti, mida paljud kardavad ning levitavad.

2. Selles väites "K6rge estrogeni tase meestel on ka otsene  p6hus  madalakas testos. " ei ole asjad selles osas korrektsed, et kumbki ei ole hea - väga madal v väga kõrge tase - ehk siis - östrogeen parajas koguses on ÜLIVAJALIK, ja kõike muud - tavamehele - kui asi mida alla suruda. Pigem olgu üle keskimse.

"Soja s88mine mis sisaldab estorgeenseid yhendeid   p6hjustab ka madalat   testot meestel."  - bro-science'i hea näide, alus puudub

Esimene ettejuhtuv "In regard to possible mechanisms, since neither soy intake nor isoflavone exposure affects testosterone levels in men,"

 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5188409/

"Conclusions
Soyfoods have become increasingly popular in non-Asian countries. Their versatility allows them to easily be incorporated into Western diets and therefore provides a convenient way to exploit the nutritional advantages of legumes, which often play an underutilized role in North America and many European countries. However, the macronutrient composition of the soybean is different from other legumes. Also, soy protein is higher in quality than other legume proteins and the soybean is a good source of both essential fatty acids. Soy protein also directly lowers circulating LDL-cholesterol levels and may also modestly lower blood pressure. Replacement of commonly-consumed sources of protein in Western diets by soyfoods may also lead to a favorable change in the fatty acid content of the diet.

The most distinctive aspect of the soybean is its high isoflavone content. Isoflavones are proposed as having a number of health benefits although not surprisingly, the degree to which the evidence supports these claims varies. For example, there is solid evidence in support of isoflavones alleviating hot flashes and improving arterial health in menopausal women whereas the evidence that they reduce risk of breast and prostate cancer, not surprisingly, is more preliminary. Concerns that the estrogen-like properties of isoflavones produce untoward effects in some subpopulations, such as postmenopausal women, are not supported by the clinical and epidemiologic research. Evidence indicates soyfoods can be safely consumed by all individuals except those who are allergic to soy protein, which is relatively uncommon in comparison to the number of individuals allergic to many other commonly-consumed foods"

(MUIDE, kui mõni ikka aru ei saa - need ei ole "artiklid/lingid", mida "tõlgi eesti keelde" - tegemist on teadus-uuringute kirjeldustega (aka teadusartikkel" - seda nö tõlkima hakata..ei, aitäh.)

Küll aga seostuvad sojaga lugematud positiivsed efektid/kaitsemehhanismid erinevatele tervisenäitajatele.



MITTE, et see antud juhul üldse oluline oli, kes mille valiks. Lihtsalt väide, et lihast saadav valk on per se kuidagi vajalik - valgu kontekstis! - ei pea paika.
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